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·         targeted therapy [TAR-geh-ted THAYR-uh-pee]  Treatment individualized to match a biologic characteristic of a tumor, for example, treatment specifically developed to interact with a particular gene or a specific enzyme.


·         T cells   A type of lymphocyte (small white blood cell) that directly attacks foreign substances in the blood. T cells direct and regulate the immune response by signaling other immune system defenders.

·         T1 weighted image   MRI image showing structures; cerebrospinal fluid appears black on this scan picture.

·         T2 weighted image   MRI image showing water; edema and cerebrospinal fluid appear white on this scan picture.

·         tectal glioma   [tek´ tal • glee o´ ma]   Located at the back of the midbrain, these are usually solid, focal, slow-growing tumors with a gradual onset of symptoms. They are often pilocytic or fibrillary astrocytomas.

·         tectum   [tek´ tum]   The roof of the midbrain.

·         Temodar   See temozolomide.

·         temozolomide   An anti-cancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Its brand name is Temodar.

·         temporal lobe   [tem´ po ral]   One of the four lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.

·         tentorium   [ten tor´ ee um]   A flap of the meninges separating the cerebral hemispheres from the brain structures in the posterior fossa.

·         teratoma, mature   [tare ah toe´ ma]   A rare, benign germ cell tumor which most frequently occurs in male infants and young children. It is the most common brain tumor in newborns.

·         tetracycline   An antibiotic drug, used to treat an infection.

·         thalamus   [thal´ ah muss]   The area surrounding the third ventricle. It acts as a relay station for other parts of the brain.

·         thalidomide   A drug being investigated for its potential as an angiogenesis inhibitor.

·         third ventricle   The fluid filled cavity connected to the lateral ventricles and the fourth ventricle. It is located beneath the corpus callosum and surrounded by the thalamus.

·         thoracic   [thor ass´ ik]   Refers to the chest, the part of the body that contains the heart and lungs.

·         thrombocyte   [throm´ bo site]   Blood cells that help prevent bleeding by causing blood clots to form. Also called platelets.

·         thrombocytopenia   [throm bo sigh toe pea´ nee ah]  A decrease in the normal number of platelets in the blood. This can cause easy bruising and excessive bleeding from injuries.

·         thymus   [thigh´ mus]   The thymus gland is a primary lymphoid organ. It is located high in the chest just below the neck and it is where T lymphocytes multiply and mature.

·         TIL   Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes. These immune cells are extracted from an individual’s tumor, treated in the laboratory and reinjected into the patient.

·         tinnitus   [tin nye´ tus]   Buzzing or ringing in the ear. Symptom common to tumors of the acoustic nerve.

·         tissue   A group of similar cells united to perform a specific function.

·         tomotherapy   A three-dimensional method of delivering radiation therapy. The beam source is rotated around the patient.

·         topoisomerase inhibitors   [toe poe eye som´ ur aze]   A family of anticancer drugs. These enzymes are responsible for the arrangement and rearrangement of DNA in the cell and for cell growth and replication. Inhibiting these enzymes may kill cancer cells or stop their growth.

·         totipotent   Stem cells that have the ability to mature into embryonic or postembryonic tissues and organs.

·         toxins   [tok´ sinz]   Poisons produced by certain animals, plants or bacteria that are very damaging to human cells, but can be delivered directly to target tumor cells by linking them to monoclonal antibodies or lymphokines.

·         toxoplasmosis   [tok so plaz moe´ sis]   A generalized infection of the central nervous system caused by a small parasite, the toxoplasma gondi. At risk for severe disease are individuals with compromised immune systems such as AIDS patients, those who have undergone organ transplants, and those who have a weakened immune system.

·         tract   A bundle of nerve fibers with a common origin and termination, e.g., the optic tract.

·         trajectory [truh JECT o ry]  Two very different medical definitions:  Trajectory may describe the process of a disease or the sequence of encounters a patient will have with the health care system in the course of treating a disease. Also describes the angle, or pathway, taken through the brain during biopsy.


·         transfusion   [trans fyu´ zhyn]   The infusion of components of blood or whole blood into the bloodstream. The blood may be donated from another person or it may have been taken from the person earlier and stored until needed (autologous).

·         translational research   Studies that provide the bridge between basic research and human testing. They provide the data to support the opening of clinical trials, or additional
scientific evidence as to how a substance works.

·         transsphenoidal surgery   [tranz sfe noyd´ al]   A surgical approach often used for pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas. Transsphenoidal means through the sphenoid bone — the bone under the eyes and over the nose.

·         trauma   Any wound or injury. The result of an accident, a birth injury, surgery, etc.

·         treatment arm   One of the different treatments being compared in a clinical trial. Also called study arm.

·         trigeminal nerve   5th cranial nerve.

·         trochlear nerve   4th cranial nerve.

·         TRP   Translational Research Program.

·         TSH   Thyroid Stimulating Hormone.

·         TTP   Time to Progression (of tumor or disease).

·         tuberous sclerosis   This is a hereditary, autosomal dominant disorder. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is the brain tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis. Also called Bourneville’s Disease.

·         tumor   [too´ mur]   An abnormal growth resulting from excessive cell division. Tumors can be benign or malignant by cell type, or life-threatening (malignant) by their location.

·         tumor infiltrating lymphocytes   [lim´ foe site]   White blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor.

·         tumor invasion   A tumor’s ability to spread into the normal tissue around it.

·         tumor marker   Substances found in blood or other fluids that identify the presence of a tumor, and/or the tumor type. CA 125 is a marker for ovarian cancer; CA 15-3 is a marker for breast cancer; CEA is a marker for ovarian, lung, breast, pancreas and GI tract cancers; PSA is a marker for prostate cancer.

·         tumor necrosis factor   A cytokine, one type of biological response modifier. They are produced by macrophages, partof the immune system, and can kill tumor cells directly. Abbreviated TNF.

·         tumor suppressor gene   A gene that normally restrains cell growth, but, when missing or inactivated due to mutations, allows cells to grow uncontrolled and form tumors. If carried
to the tumor by a special virus, it can restore normal function to existing but changed tumor suppressor genes or replace missing genes.

·         tumorigenesis   [too mor ih jen´ ih sis]   Causing or producing tumors.

·         Tumor Treating Fields is a novel cancer treatment, approved by the FDA for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma and undergoing clinical trials for its effectiveness in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The patient wears a set of scalp electrodes that use alternating electric fields to disrupt the rapid cell division of malignant cells.

·         TX, Tx   Treatment.