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·         observation   The person’s condition is closely monitored but treatment does not begin unless symptoms appear or change. Also called “watchful waiting” or “surveillance”.

·         occipital lobe   [ock sip´ ih tul]   The lobe of the cerebral hemispheres in the back of the head just above the neck; involved in the understanding of visual images and the meaning of written words.

·         occupational therapist   A professional trained to help people manage the daily activities of living, such as dressing, grooming or cooking, and regaining vocational skills. Abbreviated OT.

·         OCN   Oncology Certified Nurse.

·         oculomotor nerve   3rd cranial nerve.

·         ODAC   Oncology Drugs Advisory Committee. A group of physicians, scientists, patients and consumers assembled by the FDA to review a cancer drug NDA (new drug application).

·         ODP   Office of Oncology Drug Products. See CDER.

·         off-label use   The use of a medication or device for a condition other than that approved by the Food and Drug Administration; the use of FDA approved drugs or devices in new ways outside a clinical trial setting. When an approved drug or device will be used in a new way during a clinical trial, an Investigation New Drug Application (IND) or an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) is required.

·         OHRP   Office for Human Research Protections, of the Department of Health and Human Services [HHS]. Monitors programs for the protection of human subjects at DHHS-funded universities, hospitals and other medical and behavioral research institutions in the US and abroad. The programs must meet the requirements for protection of human research subjects. Replaces the Office of Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) of the National Institutes of Health.

·         OLA   Office of Liaison Activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This office supports the institute’s research and related programs by fostering strong communications and relationships with the cancer advocacy community, professional societies, scientific organizations, and Federal Agencies. Includes CARRA and DCLG.

·         olfactory bulb   [ol fak´ tor ee]   The connection between the nerves in the nose and the olfactory tract.

·         olfactory nerve   [ol fak´ tor ee]   1st cranial nerve.

·         oligoastrocytoma   [o´ lig o as tro sigh toe´ ma]   These tumors contain a high proportion of more than one type of cell, most frequently astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Occasionally, ependymal cells are also found. They are usually grade II or III tumors. Also called mixed glioma.

·         oligodendroglial [AH-lih-goh-DEN-droh-glee-OH-muh]   An adjective that describes oligodendroglioma, a rare, slow-growing tumor that begins in oligodendrocytes (cells that cover and protect nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord). Example: oligodendroglial tumor.

·         oligodendroglioma   [o´ lig o den dro glee o´ ma]   These tumors arise from oligodendrocytes, a type of supportive brain tissue. They most frequently occur in young and middle-aged adults but are also found in children. Pure oligodendrogliomas are rare. Mixed gliomas, tumors containing both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, are far more common.

·         Ommaya reservoir   [o my´ ah]   A small “container” implanted under the scalp and attached to a ventricle by a catheter (tubing). It allows for medication to be given directly to the CSF and into the brain.

·         oncogene [ON-koh-jeen]  A gene that is a mutated (changed) form of a gene involved in normal cell growth. Oncogenes may cause the growth of cancer cells. Mutations in genes that become oncogenes can be inherited or caused by being exposed to substances in the environment that cause cancer.The p53 and erbB are oncogenes.

·         oncogenesis   [on ko jen´ eh sis]   The cause or production of tumors. Literally, “beginning of cancer.”

·         oncologist   [on koll´ o jist]   A cancer specialist. A physician trained in diagnosing and treating tumors and cancer. Also called medical oncologist.

·         oncology   [on koll´ o gee]   The study of cancer.

·         ONS   Oncology Nursing Society, a professional society.

·         open biopsy   A biopsy performed during surgery after the tumor has been exposed and can be seen by the surgeon.

·         ophthalmologist   [of thal moll´ o jist]   A physician trained in diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the eye.

·         ophthalmoscope   [of thal´ moh skope]   A lighted instrument used to examine the inside of the eye, including the retina and the optic nerve.

·         OPRR   Office of Protection from Research Risks, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Responsible for the administration and interpretation of HHS policy and regulations for the protection of human subjects and the care and use of animals in research. Is being replaced by the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) of the US Department of Health and Human Services.

·         optic chiasm   [op´ tik • ky´ azm]   The area under the hypothalamus where the optic nerve crosses over to the opposite side of the brain.

·         optic glioma   [op´ tik • glee o´ ma]   The generic name given to a glial tumor of the optic region. These tumors can involve the optic chiasm, the optic nerve and the optic tract. They might affect the optic nerve alone, or extend along the visual pathway. Optic gliomas most often occur in children under the age of 10, and are sometimes linked to the presence of neurofibromatosis type 1. Also called optic tract glioma.

·         optic nerve   2nd cranial nerve.

·         orphan disease   A disease with an annual incidence in the United States of fewer than 200,000.

·         OSHI   Office of Special Health Issues. An FDA Cancer Liaison Program linking patients and consumers with FDA cancer-related activities.

·         otolaryngologist   [o toe lair in gol´ o jist]   A physician trained in diagnosing and treating diseases of the ear, the nose, and throat.

·         ototoxicity   [oh toe tock sis´ ih tea]   Harmful to the ear and hearing.

·         OTR   Registered Occupational Therapist.

·         OTSG   Oligodendroglioma Tumor Study Group, an NCI funded clinical cooperative group organized to evaluate new treatments in adult patients with oligodendroglioma brain tumors.

·         overexpress   An excess of a particular protein on the surface of a cell.