· FACE Functional Assessment of Changes in Elimination scale. A quality of life measurement tool.
· FACS Fellow of the American College of Surgeons.
· FACT BR A simple set of questions about a patient’s quality of life. This neuropsychological instrument may be one of the tools used in evaluating a new treatment.
· facial nerve 7th cranial nerve.
· falx cerebri [falks • sair ee´ bry] The fold of dura mater in the fissure between the cerebral hemispheres. Also called the falcine area [fall seen´].
· falx [falks] Two major folds of dura mater in the cranial cavity, the large falx (falx cerebri) is between the cerebral hemispheres and the small falx is between the halves of the cerebellum.
· familial [fa mil´ ee ul] Tending to occur repeatedly in family members, but is not genetic (inherited). Might indicate susceptibility to a common environmental influence or a shared exposure.
· fast MRI This technique produces MRI images in a faster sequence than traditional MRIs. The increased speed permits the tumor’s use of oxygen to be depicted. This technique is important because it depicts an area of the brain “lighting up” when the patient performs a task, such as moving a finger, or speaking. In this way, brain maps of functional areas are generated, useful for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative avoidance of functional or “eloquent” areas of the brain. Also called functional, “real time,” or echoplanar MRI.
· fatigue [fuh´ teeg] Extreme tiredness, weariness, a feeling of being drained. Decreased ability to respond.
· FDA Food and Drug Administration. An agency of the US Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS).
· FDAMA Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act. Passed by Congress in 1997, FDAMA revamps and reforms many procedures and programs of the FDA. It also mandates the creation of a database of all clinical trials. Access online at www.clinicaltrials.gov
· FDG-PET Low-dose radioactive sugar (FDG) with Positron Emission Tomography. This type of scan is used to measure brain activity. Most useful in suggesting tumor grade or distinguishing between recurrent tumor and cells killed by radiation.
· fellow A doctor who has completed medical school, internship and a residency, and has chosen to receive very specialized training in one particular treatment or research area. Also used to indicate membership in a learned society.
· fellowship Salary or other financial support for a fellow.
· fibrillary astrocytoma [fi´ brih lair ee • as tro sigh toe´ ma] A grade II, infiltrating, but relatively slow growing tumor. Diffuse brain stem tumors and optic gliomas are frequently fibrillary astrocytomas.
· flow sensitive MRI [FS MRI] A scan that combines functional MRI with images of cerebrospinal fluid flow through the ventricles and, if needed, the spinal cord.
· FISH test Acronym for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, this laboratory technique is used to look at genes or chromosomes in cells and tissues. Pieces of DNA that contain a fluorescent dye are made in the laboratory and added to cells or tissues on a glass slide. When these pieces of DNA bind to specific genes or areas of chromosomes on the slide, they light up when viewed under a microscope with a special light.
· focal [foe´ kal] Limited to a specific area.
· focal brain stem glioma [foe´ kal] A localized tumor of the brain stem. These tumors represent about ten to twenty percent of all brain stem tumors. They can be solid or cystic, and can occur in any part of the brain stem.
· focal radiation [foe´ kal] High dose radiation delivered to an area just encompassing the tumor. Interstitial radiation and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are two types of focal radiation.
· focal seizure [foe´ kal] Also called partial seizures, these affect only one part of a cerebral hemisphere and symptoms depend on the specific part involved. There are two types: simple partial and complex partial.
· focal symptom [foe´ kal] A symptom that helps identity the location of a tumor. The effect on a specific area of the brain.
· foci [foe´ sigh] The origin or center of a disseminated disease.
· foramen [foe ray´ men] An opening through a bone or membrane. The foramen magnum (literally, the large opening) is the hole in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord enters the skull and continues as the medulla oblongata.
· foramen of Monro [foe ray´ men] The opening through which cerebrospinal fluid flows from the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. Also called interventricular foramen.
· formulary A limited list of medications approved by a hospital, an insurance company, etc. for use.
· fourth ventricle A fluid-filled cavity located in the posterior fossa, it is an extension of the central canal of the medulla oblongata and connects to the third ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct.
· fractionated Dividing the total dose of radiation to be given into several smaller, equal portions delivered over a period of days or weeks. Each portion is called a fraction.
· frontal lobe One of the four sections of the cerebral hemisphere.
· frontal sinus A hollow in the lower part of the frontal bone that communicates with the nasal cavity.
· FS MRI Flow Sensitive MRI. A scan that combines functional MRI with images of cerebrospinal fluid flow through the ventricles and, if needed, the spinal cord.
· FSRS Fractionated Stereotactic RadioSurgery. A radiation therapy technique that uses a large number of narrow, precisely aimed, highly focused beams of ionizing radiation, delivered in divided doses over a period of time (fractionated). The beams are aimed from many directions circling the head to meet at the tumor.
· FTE Full Time Equivalent (employee).
· functional Refers to function (performance) as opposed to form (structure).
· functional MRI This technique produces MRI images in a faster sequence than traditional MRIs. The increased speed permits the tumor’s use of oxygen to be depicted. This technique is important because it depicts an area of the brain “lighting up” when the patient performs a task such as moving a finger, or speaking. In this way, brain maps of functional areas are generated, useful for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative avoidance of functional or “eloquent” areas of the brain. ) Also called echoplanar, “real time,” or Fast MRI.
· FUO Fever of Unknown Origin.